Friday, May 22, 2009

The American Period

AMERICAN PERIOD


When America signed the Treaty of Paris after the Spanish-American war, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines which was purchased from Spain for a mere $20 million dollars was given to America. At the time of the Treaty, U.S. already controlled the city of Manila, but had not ventured into other parts of the Philippines Islands. After signing the treaty, President McKinley ordered the War Department to bring all of the islands under military control because the people of the Philippines were too "uncivilized" to govern themselves. This shocked the Filipinos, because they had expected the U.S. to help them in their struggle for independence. Not only did the U.S. not help the Philippines in their struggle for freedom, they refused to grant them freedom for forty-five years. This fight for freedom became the Philippine-American War. During the forty-five years the Philippines changed into the Japanese hands from 1942 to 1945, when it was again conquered by the United States. It was in July 5, 1945 that the U.S. once again held the Philippines but under the provisions of theMcDuffie-Tyding's Act of 1934 the Philippines gained their independence from the U.S.


Adventurous Americans arrived in the Philippines and spread to all parts, here shown in Baguio, previously untouched. Although Americans interacted with Filipinos in order to "civilize" them, Filipinos were still held in low regard.


General Frederick Funston on board the Vicksburg shortly after his deceitful capture of Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Filipino revolution for independence.

President Emilio Aguinaldo of the Philippines

The Philippine-American War, known as the “Philippine Insurrection" was a nationalist revolt led by Emilio Aguinaldo in 1899 against American War. This revolt was a direct result of the invasion of the U.S. into the Philippine. The American invasion caused bitter feelings among the Filipinos. Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Filipino independence movement, felt especially betrayed. His betrayal ran deep within him, not only because he liked to be called "the George Washington of the Philippine” but also because he had helped the Americans to fight the Spanish and now the Americans were fighting against him.

The wall of fire, part of the firing line near Pasig in March 15, 1899. It represents volley-firing in clock-like order at the insurgent entrenchments. The picture was taken just before the general advance"(Picturesque Old Philippines 1). "This shows effect of first smokeless powder used by Americans in the Philippines. The guns are the old Springfield model. Photograph taken during heat of the action at Pasig. In this instance it is long distance firing"(Picturesque Old Philippines 1).
For three years General Aquinaldo and his troops fought a brutal war against the military government that the U.S. had installed. In the end the overwhelming power of the American forces defeated them. During the war the Americans confined many Filipino in concentration camps. William Howard Taft was appointed head of the Philippines Commission, charged with replacing the military government with a civilian legislature. Despite the plan to prepare the Philippines for independence America continued to rule the islands till after WWII.

During the Philippines-American War the U.S. losses were 268 killed and 750 wounded. The Filipino loss was 3,227 killed and 694 wounded (Mark Twain 2).

With the defeat of Spain and the conquest of the Philippines, the United States was launched as a world power. In a passage that reads like a 1901 vision of the Central Intelligence Agency, Twain wrote that "the government thenceforth made the sly and treacherous betrayal of weak republics its amusement, and the stealing of their lands and the assassination of their liberties its trade." The country also lost its self-respect, he observed, "but after a little ceased to be troubled by this detail."

Wars in the Philippines

The Moro massacre

After the Battle of Mount Dajo, March 9, 1906. Photo from the National Archives. Copies of this photo, which was later described as "the most hideous Philippine picture . . . published in the United States during the subjugation of the islands," were distributed to the press by the Anti-Imperialist League.



"Insurgents" during the American war. From the Philippines Islands and far East photograph albums, Duke University.

"C.G. 19th Inf. where Capt. E.B. Smith was killed" From the Philippines Islands and far East photograph albums, Duke University

"Covering the advance of Filipino insurgents “Scriven(essay writer) describes the people of Bohol as protesting the occupation of the Americans, but not rebelling against the occupying forces. This photo depicts an aspect of the war that did occur between the U.S. Army and the "insurgents" who forcibly rebelled against colonization. From "Scenes taken in the Philippines and on the Pacific" by J.D. Givens, Duke University Special Collections.
Skirmish Line halting for rest before wading a paddy-field, Philippine Campaign.

Americanization:

The effects of American imperialism on the Philippines are numerous. Some, however, stand out, most notably the installation of an American-style democracy and the prevalent attitude that anything American is "good". Many of those in lowland Philippines, and most of the Christian population, for that matter, grew up in an increasingly Americanized society. The following American influence in the Philippines says it all:


GOVERNMENT


Photo sample of the partisan politics that started in American.


Partisan politics was one of those institutions which the Americans brought to the Philippines. The municipal elections that followed the implantation of American sovereignty gave the Filipinos the first taste of politics, American-brand. To be sure there was at the beginning no furor, no color to campaigns, for the Filipinos were as to yet too politically naïve to understand the intricacies of modern politics. With the founding of political parties, however, they began to discern the American political patter: issue was outlined, platforms were laboriously prepared, speeches were delivered and political chest funds accumulated. Up to approximately 1916, however Philippine national elections were honest and based on the merits of the issues involved. After the creation of a bicameral legislature in 1916, Philippine politics followed the American groove. The electors hitherto innocent began to be corrupted by politics. Expenses of candidates soared; the electors tasting for the first time the power of the ballot, began to think in terms of personality and personal welfare. Thus many American political practices finally found a rich soil in the Philippines. But over and above the negative effects of the imported brand of politics, the Filipinos learned the intricate machinery of government. The control of the law making body and the Filipinization policy of Harrison led to a deep political consciousness. The suppressed nationalism of the first decade of American rule was released and ultimately found expression in the agitation for political independence. (Agoncillo, 1998, pp. 379-380)



RELIGION

During the Spanish-Colonization of the Philippines, Filipinos were forced to convert to Christianity (Roman Catholic), for 333 years Filipinos were experiencing Christian religion as it is the Spaniard’s prior. But after the Philippines was dominated by American, Protestantism then arrived which was the religious belief of the Americans. On the other hand America in return also adopted Roman Catholic Christianity after the American invasion in the Philippines on July 4, 1946. At the same time, missionaries of the Jehovah's Witnesses arrived in the Philippine during the American Occupation (1898-1945). For this reason Jehovah’s Witnesses Religion was also adopted in the Philippines. They have been involved in several court controversies because of their stand on flag-saluting and blood transfusions. They are best known by their preaching in pairs from house to house. Currently there are more than 150,000 members in the Philippine as of the year 2006.

The Iglesia ni Cristo church for protestants in the Philippines which was established by Felix Manalo.


Jehovah’s Witnesses preaching to each other from house to house in New York, as what they are known to be good at.


ECONOMY AND LIVELIHOOD


The economic development of the Philippines under the United States may be attributed to the free trade relations that the Americans imposed upon the country. As early as 1902, a reduction of 25% was allowed on goods coming from the Philippines. Nevertheless, the Americans Congress consistently refused to admit Philippine products into the U.S. free of duty. It was not until 1909, when the American Congress passed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act that partial free trade relations between the Philippines and the U.S. were established. Under this Act, all Philippine exports, except rice, were allowed to enter American markets free of duty within certain quota limits. On the other hand, American Congresspassed the Simmons-Underwood Tariff Act in 1913 which abolished the quota limitations on Philippine export products like hemp, sugar,and tobacco. (Agoncillo, 1998, pp. 374-375)



The Manila Lungsod Of trade and commerce institutions as of today. Taken from the 17th Floor of World Trade Center Buidling, Binondo Manila, view of the Manila Bay (right) Manila City Hall (left) Intramuros (walled city – center) and high rise buildings in Manila.



ARTS, CULTURE and TRADITION:




Filipinos of all classes and origins soon began adopting Western aspects of civilization, among them clothes. Filipinos during the American invasion also adopted the American fashion statement using hats, long sleeved coats and long long sleeved polos inside it with matching neck tiesfor men.


In art america contributed the oil painting and blood red paint.



oil paintings- is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil. Often an oil such as linseed was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense.


Blood red paint- is a dark paint also known as alizarin crimson.chool.

TRANSPORTATION


Sevel transposrtations have been influenced by the Americans in the the Philippines, such us the submarine,carretelas,railways,ancient bull carts, cars etc.



SOCIAL STRUCTURE

Many Americans believe in a simple three-class model that includes the:

Rich- This term is applied to a wide array of elite groups existing in the United States.

Middle class-is an ambiguously defined social classes in the united states. While the concept remains largely ambiguous in popular opinion and common language use, contemporary sociologists have put forward several, more or less congruent, theories on the middle class.

Poor- This measure recognizes poverty as a lack of those goods and services commonly taken for granted by members of mainstream society



SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

In the System of writing

  • The American system of vertical wrting
  • The vertical writing began some 15 years ago as a hygienic movement. Certain german medical experts pronounced in favor of vertical rather than sloping penmanship for the prevention of certain ophthalmic and orthopedic troubles, which seemed to result largely the prevailing style of writing in the schools.
  • The system has found many advocates in all parts of Europe, and is now well established in most of the German States, having been introduced either experimentally or finally a large number of schools.
  • There are some advantages of vertical system or writing:
  • Allows the pupils to sit in a natural position, namely, fronting the desk
  • Both eyes are exercised equally
  • The hand is not cramped in slop in writing
  • It is more easily learned


In Education


For the Filipinos, education became important to them. Spreading of democracy and formation of good citizens, including the rights and responsibilities of the people, were the focus of American education in the country.The Americans spread their culture, particularly the English language to the Filipinos.The Filipinos are given the chance to built public schools. The first teachers of the Filipinos were the volunteer Filipino soldiers. The part of their mission was to build classrooms in every place where they were assigned. These soldiers stopped teaching when a group of teachers from the US came to the Philippines in June 1901. In August 1901, 600 teachers called Thomasites. This group became successful in their mission.

From age 7 was required to register is schools located in their own province. The students were given free school materials. There were three levels of education during the American period. The "elementary" level consisted of four primary years and 3 intermediate years. The "secondary" or high school level consisted of four years; and the third was the "college" or tertiary level.Many elementary and secondary schools were opened in cities and provinces. Normal, vocational, agricultural, and business schools were also opened. There were also colleges during the American period. Some of these colleges are: Philippine Normal School in 1901 (now a university)and other normal schools troughout the country such as Silliman University (1901),Negros Oriental High School (1902),St. Paul University Dumaguete(1904), Cebu Normal School (1915) also a university at present, Iloilo Normal School in 1902 (now West Visayas State University) and Zamboanga Normal School in 1904 (now Western Mindanao State University) ; National University (1901); University of Manila (1914); Philippine Women University (1919); and Far Eastern University (1933). Examples of vocational schools are: the Philippine Nautical School, Philippine School of Arts and Trades and the Central Luzon Agriculture .The University of the Philippines was also founded in 1908.


For a clearer understanding here are some sites of videos you may view about the american influences in the Philippines:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fhDvYMvzoTQ

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GcJDiqY_UM8&NR=1


Bibliography:

Asms..k12.ar.us. American Imperialism. 18, February 1998. May 18, 2009 <http://asms.k12.ar.us/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/Philippines/usa.htm>
Bruce. Americanization Begns.n.d. May 18, 2009.
Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Philippines: Before the conquest. Quezon City: Garotech, 1990.
Wikepedia.com.Religion in the Philippines. 5,April 2009, 1,May 18, 2009<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandugo>

3 comments:

  1. Hi!
    I just want to ask where did you get this information->"The first teachers of the Filipinos were the volunteer Filipino soldiers.". My topic is about volunteerism in the philippines. Thank you!

    ReplyDelete
  2. thanks for this!! it really help me to finish our reports xDD

    ReplyDelete
  3. Does the system of education during the American Occupation has a bad effect? Thanks.. :)

    ReplyDelete